For the week of Sep. 16, 2018
Independence Day (El Dia de Independencia) : Mexico. On September 16,1980, in the small town of Dolores, in the province of Guanajuato in Mexico, a handful of people were summoned by a parish priest to take up arms against the Spanish colonial government. This began the fight for independence that ended 350 years of Spanish rule. To this day, the church bell that was used to call people to revolt hangs in the National Palace in Mexico City and is rung on the eve of September 16 by the President of the Republic.
Jacob Lawrence (1917-2000): African America. Painter. Jacob Lawrence was one of Americais leading modern figurative painters whose work chronicled the African American experience. His best-known work is The Migration of the American Negro, depicting the mass Migration of Southern Black to the North in search of work following World War I.
Independence Day: Chile. This holiday commemorates Chileis gaining independence from Spain in 1818.
Sarah (Sadie) Delaney (1889- 1999) : African American. Educator and writer. Born to slaves in Georgia, Delaney attended and taught school both in the South and in New York City. The first Black woman to receive a masteris degree from the Columbia School of Education, she also became the first Black woman to teach home economics to whites in New York City schools. With her sister, Dr. A. Elizabeth Delaney, a dentist, she gained fame in 1993 after the publication of their memoir, i Having Our Say: The Delaney Sisteris first 100 Years.i Now a part of the curriculum in many high schools and collages, the memoir was on the New York Times hard cover best-seller list for 28 weeks and on the paperback list for 77 weeks. The memoir was adapted into a Broadway play that was nominated for three Tony awards. Delaney died in 1999 at 109 years of age.
Dalip Singh Saund (1899-1973): Indian American. Activist and legislator. Born in a village in India, Saund came to the United States in 1920after earning his college degree. As a founding member and early president of the Indian Association of America, he campaigned for changes in the immigration laws to permit East Indians to become naturalized citizens. These efforts succeeded, and he became a U. S. citizen in 1949. In 1956 he became the first Indian American to win election to the U.S. Congress. He served three terms, representing his California district in Washington D.C., until 1962.
Independence Day: Armenia. This celebrates Armeniais reestablishment as a free republic after the collapse of the Soviet Union. A referendum was held on this day 1999 declaring Armenia and independent Republic; independence was declared on September 23.
Mary Church Terrell (1863-1954): African American. Civil rights activist. A lifelong champion of equal rights for Blacks and for women, Terrell served on the District of Columbia School board, was a founding member of the National Association of Colored Women and Delta Sigma Theta Sorority, and represented the United States at several international conferences.
Autumnal Equinox Day (Shubun No Hi): Japan. This is a public holiday to celebrate the end of summer and the beginning of the fall harvest season.
Grito de Lares (1868): Puerto Rico. This day is commemorated in Puerto Rico as the anniversary of the uprising that initiated the movement for Puerto Rican independence. On this date, 400-man army of liberation led by Manual Rojas, under orders from the exiled leader Ramon Emeterio Betances, gathered and took the town of Lares. They formed a provisional government and issued four proclamations, including one promising freedom of all slaves who joined the rebel army. Although the army was defeated and disbanded the following day, some of its aims were realized nearly immediately (the Spanish government decreed the gradual abolition of slavery by 1873), and the revolt is remembered as the first large-scale armed rebellion against Spanish colonial rule .
Unification of the Kingdom : Saudi Arabia. Since the end of the seventh century, Saudi Arabia was a collection of separate kingdoms. In 1932, however, King Ibn Saud began unifying these kingdoms under his rule into the single nation of Saudi Arabia.